Corn has a great need in the right mode of fertilization. The cultivation of 1 ton of high quality grain requires 25-30 kg of nitrogen, 10-15 kg of phosphate fertilizers, 25-35 kg of potassium, 5-10 kg of magnesium and calcium, approximately 4 kg of sulfur, 11 g of boro , 14 g of copper, 110 g of manganese, 0.9 g of molybdenum, 85 g of zinc, 200 g of iron.
Nitrogen significantly affects the level of yields of corn, helping to form strong and tall stem, preventing yellowing of leaves, and increasing protein and fat content in grain. The greatest amount of it (about 85%) is absorbed during the formation of 8 leaves before the drying of flower column that approximately accounts for the period from the second decade of June to the second decade of August. The most efficient will be the introduction of nitrogen before the start of spring cultivation and during the flowering period of corn, and the most optimal fertilizer for this purpose is a mixture of ammonium nitrate and urea in equal proportions.
Phosphorus supply is extremly important in the first phase of corn growth, and its lack during this period can not be compensated by later fertilization. This element regulates the processes of respiration, energy metabolism, photosynthesis, participates in the formation of carbohydrates. Liming of the soil and Autumn introduction of ammophos in a dose of 1-1,5 h/ha will provide corn with the optimum level of phosphorus in easily digestible form.
Potassium has a great influence on the formation of heads and the processes of growth and photosynthesis, increases corn resistance to lodging and formation of rot. It is introduced in autumn prior to plowing and most actively absorbed from the phase of 6 leaves formation untill the flowering period. To ensure a sufficient level of calcium and magnesium in corn conduct fertilization using dolomite and magnesium sulfate.
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